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Makham Pom Overview


Makhom pom, also known as Emblica, Amlaki and amla, is one of the most often used herbs in the Asian healing system. Emblica exhibits strong antioxidant activity, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antiulcer, hepatoprotective, and anticancer actions.


Diabetic therapy: The antioxidant properties of amla extracts and their effects on the oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetes were examined in rats. Amla extracts showed strong free radical scavenging activity. Amla also showed strong inhibition of the production of advanced glycosylated end products. The elevated serum levels of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, which is a glycosylated protein that is an indicator of oxidative stress, were significantly reduced dose-dependently in the diabetic rats fed amla. Similarly, the serum level of creatinine, yet another oxidative stress parameter, was also reduced. Furthermore, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances levels were significantly reduced with amla, indicating a reduction in lipid peroxidation. In addition, the decreased albumin levels in the diabetic rats were significantly improved with amla. Amla also significantly improved the serum adiponectin levels. These results form the scientific basis supporting the efficacy of amla for relieving the oxidative stress and improving glucose metabolism in diabetes. [24]


Cardiac health: The tannoid principles of the fruits of Emblica officinalis have been reported to exhibit antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, an emblicanin-A (37%) and -B (33%) enriched fraction of fresh juice of Emblica fruits (EOT) was investigated for antioxidant activity against ischemia-reperfusion (IRI)-induced oxidative stress in rat heart. IRI induced a significant decrease in the activities of cardiac superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase, with a concomitant increase in lipid peroxidation. These IRI-induced effects were prevented by the administration of EOT (50 and 100 mg/kg body wt.) and VE (200 mg/kg body wt.) given orally twice daily for 14 days prior to the sacrifice of the animals and initiation of the perfusion experiments. The study confirms the antioxidant effect of E. officinalis and indicates that the fruits of the plant may have a cardioprotective effect. [25]


Lowers Cholesterol: The effect on total serum cholesterol and its lipoprotein fractions of supplementation of the diet with amla was studied in normal and hypercholesterolaemic men aged 35-55 years. The supplement was given for a period of 28 d in the raw form. Both normal and hypercholesterolaemic subjects showed a decrease in cholesterol levels. Two weeks after withdrawing the supplement, the total serum cholesterol levels of the hypercholesterolaemic subjects rose significantly almost to initial levels. [26]


Hepatoprotective: The effect of aqueous fruit extract of Phyllanthus emblica Linn was studied on type-II diabetes, triglycerides (TG) and liver-specific enzyme, alanine transaminase (ALT). Our study showed that aqueous fruit extract, in a dose of 200mg/kg body weight, significantly decreased the blood glucose level after its intra-peritoneal administration in alloxan-induced diabetic rats (p<0.05). Almost similar decreased in glucose level was also observed by chlorpropamide, a known antidiabetic drug in a dose of 84 mg/kg. The aqueous extract also induced hypotriglyceridemia by decreasing TG levels at 0, 1, 2 and 4 hours in diabetic rats (p<0.05). In addition, the extract was also found to improve liver function by normalizing the activity of liver-specific enzyme alanine transaminase (ALT). [27]


Gastrointestinal protection: Pretreatment with the butanol extract of the water fraction of Phyllanthus emblica fruits at the dose of 100 mg/kg body-weight, orally administered to rats for 10 consecutive days, was found to enhance secretion of gastric mucus and hexosamine (P<0.001) in the indomethacin induced ulceration of rats. The morphological observations also supported a protective effect of the stomach wall from lesion. The indomethacin treatment of the premedicated animals with the drug hardly affected either the malondialdehyde (MDA) or superoxide dismutase (SOD) level in gastric tissue while the ulcerative agent itself significantly enhanced both the levels. An antioxidant property appears to be predominantly responsible for this cytoprotective action of the drug. [28]


Instructions for Makham Pom

We recommend 250 mg. per 100 lb. / 45 kg. of body weight per day.


Toxicity Study

No major reported toxicities have been associated with the fruit. In toxicity studies in rats, no toxicity was observed in single- or chronic-dose administration. Additionally, no detrimental effect was noted on liver or renal function. In another experiment, no toxicity or mutagenicity were observed in rats even at the highest doses administered.


The Herb


















The Research

Gastrointestinal protection
“Oral administration of Amla extract at doses 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg significantly inhibited the development of gastric lesions in all test models used. It also caused significant decrease of the pyloric-ligation induced basal gastric secretion, titratable acidity and gastric mucosal injury. Besides, Amla extract offered protection against ethanol-induced depletion of stomach wall mucus and reduction in nonprotein sulfhydryl concentration. Histopathological analyses are in good agreement with pharmaco­logical and biochemical findings. The results indicate that Amla extract possesses antisecretory, antiulcer, and cytoprotective properties. ”
Gastroprotective effects of 'Amla' Emblica officinalis on in vivo test models in rats.


Hepatoprotective
“A hydroalcoholic (50%) extract of Emblica officinalis (fruit) (EO-50) reduced the severity of hepatic fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and thioacet­amide (TAA). Improved liver function was observed by measuring the levels of aspartate aminotransa­minase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin in serum. Hepatic parameters monitored were the levels of glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation and hydroxyproline and the activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), Na+,K+-ATPase and cytochrome P450 (CYP 450 2E1) (aniline hydroxylation). The results suggested that EO-50 effectively reversed profibrogenic events possibly due to its promising antioxidative activity.”
Reversal of fibrogenic events in liver by Emblica officinalis.


Antioxidant
“In the present study, we have evaluated the antioxidant role of Phyllanthus emblica (PE) fruit extract on cigarette smoke-induced oxidative stress in rats. The status of improvement of SOD, CAT, GSH and GST of lung and liver homogenate in PE fruit extract-administered group (Gr.A) ranged from 30 - 80% over the only smoke exposed group (Gr.B). PE fruit extract administered group showed better antioxidant profiles than that of the multivitamin supplemented group. The results of the present study suggest that Phyllanthus emblica fruit extract exerts its protective effect against cigarette-smoke induced oxidative damage through its potent antioxidant agents (gallo-ellagi tannoids). ”
Islam, Aminul. Pharmacologyonline