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Mangkhut Overview


Xanthones: No plant in nature has a higher concentration or variety of xanthones than Mangkhut. The chemical structure of xanthone forms the central core of a variety of naturally occurring organic compounds, such as mangostin, which are sometimes collectively referred to as xanthones. Over 200 xanthones have been identified and many of these are found in the pericarp of the mangosteen fruit (Garcinia mangostana), which can be found in the region of Southeast Asia.

Forty distinct xanthones have been identified in Mangkhut pericarp powder. Researchers have demonstrated their positive effect on cardiovascular health; and their antiviral, antibiotic, and anti-inflammatory properties in addition to their being a powerful antioxidant.


Anti-inflammatory: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of extract from mangosteen hull on anti-inflammatory indicators such as histamine release and prostaglandin E2 production. The researchers found that a 40 percent ethanol extract of mangosteen hull inhibited IgE-mediated histamine release. The inhibition was higher than that of Rubus suavissimus, which is traditionally used as anti-allergy medicine in Japan. All tested mangosteen extracts inhibited prostaglandin E2 synthesis. The study concluded that the 40 percent ethanol extract of mangosteen hull inhibits histamine release and prostaglandin E2 synthesis. [16]


Cardiovascular health: Oxidative damage is thought to play a critical role in cardiovascular and other chronic diseases. This has led to considerable interest in the antioxidant activity of dietary compounds. We have previously shown that the prenylated xanthone, mangostin, can inhibit the oxidation of low density lipoprotein. The results of this study show that structural modification of mangostin can have a profound effect on antioxidant activity. Derivatisation of the C-3 and C-6 hydroxyl groups with either methyl, acetate, propane diol or nitrile substantially reduces antioxidant activity. In contrast, derivatisation of C-3 and C-6 with aminoethyl derivatives enhanced antioxidant activity, which may be related to changes in solubility. [17]


Anti-oxidant: In clinical trials Mangosteen (Garcina mangosteen) has been shown to strengthen the body's antioxidant defenses by inducing synthesis of the natural antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) [an anti-inflammatory, antioxidant enzyme produced by the body that protects against joint inflammation] and scavenging free radicals that in turn help with the prevention of carcinogenesis (cancer development) as well as aid in the prevention and treatment of heart attacks, strokes, atherosclerosis, and liver disease. It is this ability of Mangosteen to induce SOD production in the body that makes it so valuable in fighting free radicals. [18] [19] [20] [21] [22]


Antibacterial: Extracts of Garcinia mangostana showed inhibitory effects against the growth of Staph. aureus NIHJ 209p and some of the components had activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). One active isolate, a-mangostin, a xanthone derivative, had a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 1.57-12.5 ug/ml. Other related xanthones were also examined to determine their anti-MRSA activity. The strong in-vitro antibacterial activity of xanthone derivatives against both methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus suggested the compounds might find wide pharmaceutical use [Iinuma et al]. [23]


Antifungal: The antifungal activity of several xanthones isolated from fruit hulls of G. mangostana (collected from Tamil Nadu, India) and some derivatives of mangostin against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum, Alternaria tenuis [A. alternata] and Drechslera oryzae [Cochliobolus miyabeanus] was evaluated. The natural xanthones inhibited the growth of all the fungi. Substitution in the A and C rings modified the bioactivities of the compounds [Geetha et al; Gopalakrishnan et al]. [23]


Instructions for Mangkhut

We recommend 250 mg. per 100 lb. / 45 kg. of body weight per day.


Toxicity Study

Use cautiously in patients using chemotherapeutic agents, as mangosteen may interact with chemotherapeutic agents (i.e., anthracyclines, platinum compounds, and alkylating agents) whose mechanism of action involves oxidation.


The Herb


















The Research

Anti-inflammatory
“ The researchers found that gamma-mangostin had a potent dose-dependent inhibitory activity on prostaglandin E2 release. Gamma-mangostin inhibited the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandin E2 in microsomal preparations, showing its possible inhibition of the activity of cyclooxygenases. This is the first study to show gamma-mangostin directly inhibits the activity of cyclooxygenases. Inhibition of cyclooxygenases can provide relief from the symptoms of inflammation and pain. ”
Biochemical Pharmacology. 2002 January 1;63(1):73-9


Anti-oxidant
“The water and 50% ethanol extracts showed high free-radical scavenging activity with IC(50) values of 34.98 +/- 2.24 and 30.76 +/- 1.66 microg/ml, respectively. Both water and 50% ethanol extracts exhibited neuroprotective activity on NG108-15 cells. The highest activity was observed at the concentration of 50 microg/ml for both the water and 50% ethanol extracts. These results suggest that the water and 50% ethanol extracts from the fruit hull of GM may be potent neuroprotectants.”
Antioxidative and neuroprotective activities of extracts from the fruit hull of mangosteen


Anti-bacterial
“Extracts of Garcinia mangostana (Guttiferae) showing inhibitory effects against the growth of S. aureus NIHJ 209p were fractionated according to guidance obtained from bioassay and some of the components with activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were characterized. One active isolate, alpha-mangostin, a xanthone derivative, had a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 1.57-12.5 micrograms mL-1. The strong in-vitro antibacterial activity of xanthone derivatives against both methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus suggests the compounds might find wide pharmaceutical use.”
Antibacterial activity of xanthones from guttiferaeous plants against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.